**PROBLEM**

You are given a lucky number n. Lucky numbers are the positive integers whose decimal representations contain only the lucky digits 4 and 7. For example, numbers 47, 744, 4 are lucky and 5, 17, 467 are not.

If we sort all lucky numbers in increasing order, what’s the 1-based index of n?

Input:

4

7

44

47

output:

1

2

3

4

Solution:Consider n has x digits, f(i) = decimal representation of binary string i, m is a binary string of size x and its i - th digit is 0 if and only if the i - th digit of n is 4. Finally, answer equals to 21 + 22 + … + 2x - 1 + f(m) + 1.

I didnt quite understand it.